Buffers maintain their pH when small amounts of strong acids or bases are added. In biology, buffer solutions are used to provide a constant pH environment for biochemical processes. The pH often changes the environments of tissues and cells and can alter the activity of biomolecules. Buffers maintain the correct pH for proteins and oligonucleotides, and are especially important for techniques like electrophoresis.
Commonly used buffers in life science research share some of these characteristics:
- A pKa value between 6.0 and 8.0
- High water solubility
- Minimal changes due to temperature and concentration
- Limited effects due to ionic or salt composition of the solution
Browse our comprehensive selection of buffers including common buffers tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (tris) and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES).
Guanidine hydrochloride consists of a networkof guanidinium cations and chloride anions linked by N–H•••Cl hydrogen bonds,it is a strong chaotropic agent. Guanidine HCl may agglomerate upon storage. It may appear as a free-flowing crystalline powder, a free flowing powder with solid material dispersed throughout, or a solid. The quality of the product does not appear to be affected and solutions prepared from the free-flowing and lumpy guanidine HCl appear identical.